A decade ago, the discovery of quipiparticles called magnetized skymission provided important new clues as to how subtle spin textures would enable sprintronics, a new class of electronics that uses the orientation of electron spin rather than its charge to encode data. .

But although scientists have made great progress in this very young field, they still do not fully understand how to design Spintronics materials that would allow for ultrasound, ultrafast, low-power devices.

Skyrmions may look promising, but scientists have long considered Skyrmions to be only 2D objects. However, recent studies have suggested that 2D skyrion may actually be the origin of a 3D spin pattern known as hopfion. But no one was able to prove experimentally that magnetic hops exist at the nanoscale.

Now, a team of co-researchers from Berkeley Lab have reported on the first demonstration and observation of 3D hoffs emanating from the skymation at the nanoscale (billions of meters) in a magnetic system at Nature Communications. Researchers say their discovery is a major step forward in realizing high-density, high-speed, low-power, yet ultrastable magnetic memory devices that exploit the intrinsic power of electron spin.

Peter Fisher, a senior scientist and senior author of the Materials Sciences Division of Berkeley Lab, said, “Not only did we prove that complex spin textures like 3D Hoff exist — we also showed how to study and use them Go. ”

Physics at UC Santa Cruz. He said, “To understand how hops actually work, we need to know how to make them and study them. This work is only possible because we have these amazing tools at Berkeley Lab and We have collaborative partnerships with scientists around the world. ”

According to previous studies, Hoff, unlike skfmions, do not drift when they move with an instrument and are therefore excellent candidates for data technologies. Furthermore, theory colleagues in the United Kingdom predicted that expectations could emerge from a multilayer 2D magnetic system.

The current study is the first to impose those tests, Fisher said.

Php at Noah Kent, Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry. Students in Physics at Fisher’s group at UC Santa Cruz and Berkeley Lab, worked with molecular foundry staff to extrude magnetic nanopillars from layers of iridium, cobalt, and platinum.

The multilevel material was produced by UC Berkeley postdoctoral scholar Neil Reynolds under the supervision of co-senior author Frances Hellman, who holds the title of Senior Faculty Scientist in the Materials Science Division of Berkeley Lab and Professor of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering at UC Berkeley . She also leads the Department of Energy’s Non-equilibrium Magnetic Materials (NEMM) program, which supported this study.

Hopfians and skirmians are known to coexist in magnetic materials, but they have a characteristic spin pattern in three dimensions.

Therefore, to differentiate them, the researchers used a combination of two advanced magnetic X-ray microscopy techniques — X-PEEM (X-ray photomission electron microscopy) at Berkeley Lab’s Synchrotron user facility, Advanced Light Source; ALBA features magnetic synchrotron light in magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy (MTXM) Barcelona, ​​Spain – which image the possibilities and skirmishes of different spin patterns.

To corroborate their observations, the researchers then performed detailed simulations to simulate how 2D skyriones evolve into 3D hots in carefully designed multilayer structures inside a magnetic device, and polarized X-ray light. How will it appear when imaged by.

“Simulations are an important part of this process, which enables us to understand experimental images and design structures that would support hopfines, skirmians, or other designed 3D spin structures,” Hellman said.

To understand how an instrument ultimately functions, researchers plan to employ Berkeley Lab’s unique capabilities and world-class research facilities – which Fisher describes as “essential for carrying out such interdisciplinary work” Are – and furthermore study the dynamic behavior of quiesotic quipiparticles.

“We have long known that spin textures are nearly three-dimensional, even in relatively thin films, but direct imaging is experimentally challenging,” Hellman said. “The evidence here is exciting, and it opens doors to discover and explore even more exotic and potentially important 3D spin structures.”

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